Generally speaking, the recent advances of testing equipment such as PET, CT, MRI, endoscope, etc., allows diagnosis of cancer of as 5 mm in size, however, a cancer of 5 mm in size is already a "mature" cancer consisting of more than a billion cells.
This test is a program that assesses "cancer risk" increased by acquired factors (lifestyle, living environment, stress, aging, etc.) and "risk of existence of microscopic cancer cells". Don`t start a distressful treatment after development of cancer but make efforts beforehand to prevent its development using "body-friendly preventive measures". Web Source
- Chromosomes are the long stretches of DNA that contain our genes. “Cytogenetics” is a word used to describe the study of chromosomes. The chromosomes need to be stained in order to see them with a microscope. When stained, the chromosomes look like strings with light and dark “bands.” A picture (an actual photograph from one cell) of all 46 chromosomes, in their pairs, is called a “karyotype.” A normal female karyotype is written 46, XX, and a normal male karyotype is written 46, XY. The standard analysis of the chromosomal material evaluates both the number and structure of the chromosomes, with an accuracy of over 99.9 percent.
- Direct DNA studies simply look directly at the gene in question for an error. Errors in the DNA may include a replication of the gene’s DNA (duplication), a loss of a piece of the gene’s DNA (deletion), an alteration in a single unit (called a base pair) of the gene’s DNA (point mutation) or the repeated replication of a small sequence (for instance, three base pairs) of the gene’s DNA (trinucleotide repeat). Different types of errors, or “mutations,” are found in different disorders.
- Sometimes, the gene that (when mutated) causes a condition has not yet been identified, but researchers know approximately where it lies on a particular chromosome. Other times the gene is identified, but direct gene studies are not possible because the gene is too large to analyze. In these cases, indirect DNA studies may be done. Indirect DNA studies involve using “markers” to find out whether a person has inherited the crucial region of the genetic code that is passing through the family with the disease. Markers are DNA sequences located close to or even within the gene of interest. Because the markers are so close, they are almost always inherited together with the disease. When markers are this close to a gene, they are said to be “linked.” If someone in a family has the same set of linked markers as the relative with the disease, this person often also has the disease-causing gene mutation. Because indirect DNA studies involve using linked markers, these types of studies also are called “linkage studies.”
- Biochemical genetic testing involves the study of enzymes in the body that may be abnormal in some way. Enzymes are proteins that regulate chemical reactions in the body. The enzymes may be deficient or absent, unstable, or have altered activity that can lead to clinical manifestations in an adult or child (i.e., birth defects). There are hundreds of enzyme defects that can be studied in humans. Sometimes, rather than studying the gene mutation that is causing the enzyme to be defective in the first place, it is easier to study the enzyme itself (the gene product). The approach depends on the disorder. Biochemical genetic studies may be done from a blood sample, urine sample, spinal fluid or other tissue sample, depending on the disorder.
- Another way to look at gene products, rather than the gene itself, is through protein truncation studies. Testing involves looking at the protein a gene makes to see if it is shorter than normal. Sometimes a mutation in a gene causes it to make a protein that is truncated (shortened). With the protein truncation test, it is possible to “measure” the length of the protein the gene is making to see if it is the right size or shortened. Protein truncation studies can be performed on a blood sample. These types of studies are often performed for disorders in which the known mutations predominantly lead to shortened proteins. Web Source
Genetic Testing During Pregnancy
Why Doctors Recommend Genetic Testing kidshealth.org
⇒If you are looking to get genetic testing done these are just a few sites that can help with that.
Invitae.com ( I used this for my genetic testing)